P.S.H.E.


PSHE stands for Personal, Social, Health Education. It forms an integral part of the school's curriculum, with three core themes:

Core Theme 1: Health and Wellbeing

Pupils should be taught:

  • what is meant by a healthy lifestyle
  • how to maintain physical, mental and emotional health and wellbeing
  • how to manage risks to physical and emotional health and wellbeing
  • ways of keeping physically and emotionally safe
  • about managing change, such as puberty, transition and loss
  • how to make informed choices about health and wellbeing and to recognise sources of help with this
  • how to respond in an emergency
  • to identify different influences on health and wellbeing

Key Stage One

Key Stage Two

what constitutes a healthy lifestyle including the benefits of physical activity, rest, healthy eating and dental health

to recognise what they like and dislike, how to make real, informed choices that improve their physical and emotional health, to recognise that choices can have good and not so good consequences

to think about themselves, to learn from their experiences, to recognise and celebrate their strengths and set simple but challenging goals

about good and not so good feelings, a vocabulary to describe their feelings to others and simple strategies for managing feelings

about change and loss and the associated feelings (including moving home, losing toys, pets or friends)

the importance of and how to maintain personal hygiene

how some diseases are spread and can be controlled and the responsibilities they have for their own health and that of others

about the process of growing from young to old and how people’s needs change

about growing and changing and new opportunities and responsibilities that increasing independence may bring

the names for the main parts of the body (including external genitalia) the similarities and differences between boys and girls

that household products, including medicines, can be harmful if not used properly

rules for and ways of keeping physically and emotionally safe (including road safety, safety in the environment, safety online, the responsible use of ICT, the difference between secrets and surprises and understanding not to keep adults’ secrets)

about people who look after them, their family networks, who to go to if they are worried and how to attract their attention, ways that pupils can help these people to look after them

to recognise that they share a responsibility for keeping themselves and others safe, when to say, ‘yes’, ‘no’, ‘I’ll ask’ and ‘I’ll tell’

 

what positively and negatively affects their physical, mental and emotional health (including the media)

how to make informed choices (including recognising that choices can have positive, neutral and negative consequences) and to begin to understand the concept of a ‘balanced lifestyle’

to recognise opportunities to make their own choices about food, what might influence their choices and the benefits of eating a balanced diet

to reflect on and celebrate their achievements, identify their strengths, areas for improvement, set high aspirations and goals

to deepen their understanding of good and not so good feelings, to extend their vocabulary to enable them to explain both the range and intensity of their feelings to others

to recognise that they may experience conflicting emotions and when they might need to listen to their emotions or overcome them

about change, including transitions (between Key Stages and schools), loss, separation, divorce and bereavement

to differentiate between the terms, ‘risk’, ‘danger’ and ‘hazard’

to deepen their understanding of risk by recognising, predicting and assessing risks in different situations and deciding how to manage them responsibly (including sensible road use and risks in their local environment) and to use this as an opportunity to build resilience

to recognise their increasing independence brings increased responsibility to keep themselves and others safe

that bacteria and viruses can affect health and that following simple routines can reduce their spread

that pressure to behave in an unacceptable, unhealthy or risky way can come from a variety of sources, including people they know and the media

to recognise when and how to ask for help and use basic techniques for

resisting pressure to do something dangerous, unhealthy, that makes them uncomfortable, anxious or that they believe to be wrong

school rules about health and safety, basic emergency aid procedures, where and how to get help

what is meant by the term ‘habit’ and why habits can be hard to change which, why and how, commonly available substances and drugs (including alcohol and tobacco) could damage their immediate and future health and safety, that some are legal, some are restricted and some are illegal to own, use and supply to others

how their body will change as they approach and move through puberty

to recognise how images in the media do not always reflect reality and can affect how people feel about themselves

about human reproduction

strategies for keeping physically and emotionally safe including road safety, safety in the environment and safety online (including social media, the responsible use of ICT and mobile phones)

the importance of protecting personal information, including passwords, addresses and images

about people who are responsible for helping them stay healthy and safe and ways that they can help these people

 

Core Theme 2: Relationships

Pupils should be taught:

  • how to develop and maintain a variety of healthy relationships, within a range of social/cultural contexts
  • how to recognise and manage emotions within a range of relationships
  • how to recognise risky or negative relationships including all forms of bullying and abuse
  • how to respond to risky or negative relationships and ask for help
  • how to respect equality and diversity in relationships

Key Stage One

Key Stage Two

to communicate their feelings to others, to recognise how others show feelings and how to respond

to recognise how their behaviour affects other people

the difference between secrets and surprises and the importance of not keeping adults’ secrets, only surprises

to recognise what is fair and unfair, kind and unkind, what is right and wrong

to share their opinions on things that matter to them and explain their views through discussions with one other person and the whole class

to listen to other people and play and work cooperatively (including strategies to resolve simple arguments through negotiation)

to offer constructive support and feedback to others

to identify and respect the differences and similarities between people

to identify their special people (family, friends, carers), what makes them special and how special people should care for one another

to judge what kind of physical contact is acceptable, comfortable, unacceptable and uncomfortable and how to respond (including who to tell and how to tell them)

that people’s bodies and feelings can be hurt (including what makes them feel comfortable and uncomfortable)

to recognise when people are being unkind either to them or others, how to respond, who to tell and what to say

that there are different types of teasing and bullying, that these are wrong and unacceptable

how to resist teasing or bullying, if they experience or witness it, whom to go to and how to get help

 

 

to recognize and respond appropriately to a wider range of feelings in others

to recognise what constitutes a positive, healthy relationship and develop the skills to form and maintain positive and healthy relationships

to recognise ways in which a relationship can be unhealthy and who to talk to if they need support.

to be aware of different types of relationship, including those between friends and families, civil partnerships and marriage

that their actions affect themselves and others

to judge what kind of physical contact is acceptable or unacceptable and how to respond

the concept of ‘keeping something confidential or secret’, when we should or should not agree to this and when it is right to ‘break a confidence’ or ‘share a secret’

to listen and respond respectfully to a wide range of people, to feel confident to raise their own concerns, to recognise and care about other people's feelings and to try to see, respect and if necessary constructively challenge their points of view

to work collaboratively towards shared goals

to develop strategies to resolve disputes and conflict through negotiation and appropriate compromise and to give rich and constructive feedback and support to benefit others as well as themselves

that differences and similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including family, cultural, ethnic, racial and religious diversity, age, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, and disability (see ‘protected characteristics’ in the Equality Act 2010)

to realise the nature and consequences of discrimination, teasing, bullying and aggressive behaviours (including cyber bullying, how to respond and ask for help)

to recognise and challenge stereotypes

 

Core Theme 3: Living in the wider world – Economic wellbeing and being a responsible citizen

Pupils should be taught:

  • about respect for self and others and the importance of responsible behaviours and actions
  • about rights and responsibilities as members of families, other groups and ultimately as citizens
  • about different groups and communities
  • to respect equality and to be a productive member of a diverse community
  • about the importance of respecting and protecting the environment
  • about where money comes from, keeping it safe and the importance of managing it effectively
  • how money plays an important part in people’s lives
  • a basic understanding of enterprise.

Key Stage One

Key Stage Two

how to contribute to the life of the classroom

to help construct, and agree to follow, group and class rules and to understand how these rules help them

that people and other living things have needs and that they have responsibilities to meet them (including being able to take turns, share and understand the need to return things that have been borrowed)

that they belong to various groups and communities such as family an school what improves and harms their local, natural and built environments and about some of the ways people look after them that money comes from

different sources and can be used for different purposes, including the concepts of spending and saving about the role money plays in their lives including how to manage their money, keep it safe, choices about spending money and what influences those choices

 

to research, discuss and debate topical issues, problems and events concerning health and wellbeing and offer their recommendations to appropriate people why and

how rules and laws that protect themselves and others are made and enforced, why different rules are needed in different situations and how to take part in making and changing rules to realise the consequences of anti-social and aggressive behaviours such as bullying and discrimination on individuals and communities

that there are different kinds of responsibilities, rights and duties at home, at school, in the community and towards the environment

to resolve differences by looking at alternatives, seeing and respecting others’ points of view, making decisions and explaining choices

what being part of a community means, and about the varied institutions that support communities locally and nationally

to recognise the role of voluntary, community and pressure groups, especially in relation to health and wellbeing

to appreciate the range of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom

to think about the lives of people living in other places, and people with different values and customs

about the role money plays in their own and others’ lives, including how to manage their money and about being a critical consumer

to develop an initial understanding of the concepts of ‘interest’, ‘loan’, ‘debt’, and ‘tax’ (e.g. their contribution to society through the payment of VAT)

that resources can be allocated in different ways and that these economic choices affect individuals, communities and the sustainability of the environment

about enterprise and the skills that make someone ‘enterprising’

to explore and critique how the media present information

 

PSHE education makes a significant contribution to the development of a wide range of essential skills.

The intrapersonal skills required for self management:

The interpersonal skills required for positive relationships in a wide variety of settings:

The skills of enquiry:

Critical, constructive self-reflection (including being aware of own needs, motivations and learning, strengths and next steps for development, how we are influenced by our perception of peers’ behaviour) Learning from experience to seek out and make use of constructive feedback

Setting challenging personal goals (including developing strategies to achieve them and knowing when to change them) Making decisions (including knowing when to be flexible)

Recognising some of the common ways our brains can ‘trick us’ or ‘trap us’ in unhelpful thinking (including generalisation, distortion of events, deletion of information, misconceptions or misperceptions about the behaviour of peers)

Resilience (including self-motivation, adaptability, constructively managing change including setbacks and stress)

Self-regulation (including managing strong emotions e.g. negativity and impulse)

Recognising and managing the need for peer approval

Self-organisation (including time management)

Active listening

Empathy

Communication (non-verbal and verbal including assertiveness and recognising how this differs from aggressive and passive behaviour; being able to present and communicate ideas, arguments and thoughts effectively)

Team working (including agreeing clear and challenging outcomes, facilitation, cooperation, networking and the ability to provide, receive and respond to, constructive feedback and take on different roles; the ability to recognise and learn from others experience)

Negotiation (including flexibility, self-advocacy and compromise)

Recognising and utilising strategies for managing pressure, persuasion and coercion

Responding to the need for positive affirmation for self and others

 

Formulating questions

Gathering and using data (including assessing the validity and reliability of sources of data and using a variety of sources)

Analysis (including separating fact from opinion)

Planning and deciding

Recalling and applying knowledge creatively and in novel situations

Drawing and defending conclusions using evidence and not just assertion

Identification, assessment (including prediction) and management of risk

Evaluating social norms

Reviewing progress against objectives